The history of gold begins in antiquity. Bits of gold were found in Spanish caves that were used by Paleolithic people around 40,000 B.C. Gold is the "child of Zeus," wrote the Greek poet Pindar. The Romans called the yellow metal aurum ("shining dawn"). Gold is the first element and first metal mentioned in the Bible, where it appears in more than 400 references. This book provides the most thorough and up-to-date information available on the extraction of gold from its ores, starting with the miner alogy of gold ores and ending with details of refining. Each chapter con cludes with a list of references including full publication information for all works cited. Sources preceded by an asterisk (*) are especially recom mended for more in-depth study. Nine appendices, helpful to both students and operators, complement the text. I have made every attempt to keep abreast of recent technical literature on the extraction of gold. Original publications through the spring of 1989 have been reviewed and cited where appropriate. This book is intended as a reference for operators, managers, and designers of gold mills and for professional prospectors. It is also designed as a textbook for extractive metallurgy courses. I am indebted to the Library of Engineering Societies in New York, which was the main source of the references in the book. The assistance of my son, Panos, in typing the manuscript is gratefully acknowledged.